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Guidelines on the use of Solar Power Systems LTAs when ordering PVDiesel Hybrid Solar Power Systems
Prerequisites, LTA Guidelines, Post Installation, and Resources
Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION…………………………………….. 2
2. PREREQUISITES……………………………………. 2
Step 1: Energy Audit/Assessment………………………. 2
What is an energy audit/assessment?…/……………….. 2
Steps required to undertake an energy assessment: ……… 3
During an energy assessment:…………………………. 3
Step 2: Assurances and Feasibility Study………………. 4
Technical Expertise Availability:…………………….. 4
Solar Power Feasibility Analysis……………………… 4
3. STANDARD SOLAR POWER SYSTEM, INCLUDING PV DIESEL HYBRID
SYSTEMS LTAS……………………………………….. 5
Three Basic Steps to Follow When Using the LTAs………… 5
Solar Power System Warranty………………………….. 6
1. POST INSTALLATION………………………………… 6
Why monitor energy use?……………………………… 6
How to measure and monitor energy use?………………… 7
2. OTHER RELEVANT RESOURCES………………………….. 7
Intranet Pages……………………………………… 7
ANNEX 1……………………………………………. 8
A – HOW DOES A PV DIESEL HYBRID SOLAR POWER SYSTEM WORK?… 8
B- DESIGN CRITERIA USED FOR PV DIESEL HYBRID SOLAR POWER
SYSTEMS IN BOTH LTAS………………………………… 8
1. INTRODUCTION The aim of establishing LTAS for Solar Power Systems forUNICEF programmes worldwide addresses a solution to reduce the use ofdiesel generators as a source of power, which leads to a reduction infuel costs and CO2 emissions in the UNICEF Country offices worldwide, inaddition to contributing to cleaner and healthier air where UNICEFoperates.
The established solar LTA 42200498 with Peak International Ltd. and LTAs42200500 and 42200503 with Redondo Y Garcia covers the belowrequirements:
• ITSS Requirement (Solar power systems and products to meet emergencypower needs for communication and telecommunication equipment) • Solarpower systems for Country office electrification (PV Diesel hybrid solarpower systems and Solar powered street lights) • Technical supportservices.
These guidelines are meant to guide country offices on how to use theSolar Power System LTAs when ordering PV Diesel Hybrid Solar PowerSystem. Also, the prerequisite steps required by the CO to undertakewith the support of DFAM’s Administrative Management Section beforeconsidering the installation of a solar power system, and thepostinstallation measurement and monitoring processes.
2. PREREQUISITES Before considering the installation of a solar powersystem, offices are required to undertake an energy audit/assessment(step 1). If one of the recommendations is the installation of a solarpv system, then ensuring availability of technical expertise and afeasibility study should be undertaken (step 2).
Step 1: Energy Audit/Assessment
What is an energy audit/assessment?
An energy audit helps the office determine the energy consumptionassociated with its facility and the potential savings associated withrecommended investments.
It provides enormous benefits in the following different areas: •Identifies the steps required to reduce the office’s energy costs, whilemaintaining, if not improving, staff comfort. • It helps reduceenvironmental impact through reducing carbon emissions and pollution. •Contributes to increasing the security of your energy supply. • Helpsincrease the life span of equipment at the office. • It discovers anyunaccounted/wasteful energy consumption that may exist at the office •Identifies the measures that would optimize the solar system’s capacityand efficiency.
In summary, an energy audit will first identify energy consumption andenergy costs of the facility, then prescribe a set of prescribedmeasures to eliminate energy waste, maximize efficiency, reduceenvironmental impact and optimize energy supply.
Finally, it will provide a clear way forward on the feasibility, optimalsize, and type of solar power system required. Steps required toundertake an energy assessment: • Reach out to DFAM’s AdministrativeManagement Section – the Inclusive and Sustainable Operation team(firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org ),while providing the following information: • Type of tenancy, and incase of building lease, the length and status of the lease. • Yearlyenergy costs – grid electricity and diesel fuel (if generators areused). • Energy use intensity, in kWh/square meter. • Carbon emissionsfrom facilities. • If the office is eligible, the terms of reference forhiring an energy audit/assessment consultant will be shared. • Theoffice will then issue a request for proposals based on the terms ofreference. • DFAM’s Administrative Management Section – the Inclusiveand Sustainable Operation team will provide the funding to cover thecosts of the assessment • DFAM’s Administrative Management Section – theInclusive and Sustainable Operation team will provide the support forundertaking the technical evaluations of the proposals received by theoffice. • The funds will be released in the form of a Fund Requisition,following the completion of the financial evaluation by the office.During an energy assessment: • The office is advised to immediatelyshare any queries raised by the entity undertaking the energy audit withthe Inclusive and Sustainable Operation team. • All preliminary anddraft reports should be shared with the Inclusive and SustainableOperation team for quality control and validation before any milestoneor final payment is issued. • The onsite measurements typically take nomore than a week, and the generating the draft and final reports shouldtake between 4 and 6 weeks.
After the energy assessment is completed: • The office is required toshare the final report and annexes with the Inclusive and SustainableOperation team and schedule a call to go through the report’srecommendations and prescribed projects. • Based on the analysis of theprescribed projects, which includes their simple payback period andanticipated environmental and operating cost impact, the office willproceed with the procurement of the equipment/fixtures based on thespecifications listed in the report, including any subscribed solarpower generation system. • For inverter / VRV air conditioners, LEDlights and efficient lighting systems, occupancy/vacancy sensors,building insulation, glazing, timer switches, energy meters, shadingdevices, window and door seals, or any other prescribed projects otherthan Solar power systems, the office can proceed with locally procuringthe required equipment and fixtures.
• If one of the prescribed measures/projects is the installation of asolar power system, the following section provides the necessary stepsand guidance. • The office should make sure that the total energy loadis reduced prior /in parallel to installing the photovoltaic system, andshould only proceed if the installation of such system is deemedfeasible as prescribed in the energy assessment report. IF A SOLAR POWERSYSTEM IS RECOMMENDED BY THE ENERGY ASSESSMENT, PROCEED TO STEP 2.
Step 2: Assurances and Feasibility Study
If the energy assessment recommends the installation of a solar powersystem, the office should ensure the following:
Technical Expertise Availability:
Country Offices should ensure there is availability of technicalexpertise and support in the sizing, installation operation andmaintenance of the solar power systems.
In cases where there is a lack of technical expertise, UNICEF SupplyDivision (SD) launched a tender for global LTAS-DO LTA No’s 42105765with Trama TecnoAmbiental, S.L., Spain and 42105767 with Gamma SolutionsS.L., Spain FOR Direct Ordering of Solar Electrification SupportConsultancy services.
The process led to selection of two (2) LTAS holders with capacity tosupport the Offices in different parts of the world.
The objectives of the consultant/consultancy are to: • Providetechnical support to the Offices in tender processes for solar systems • Provide technical advice to the Offices related to solar systems suchas: Solar feasibility analysis (refer to section below), needsassessment, cost/benefit analysis, project scoping, requirementsdefinition, site survey, etc. • Develop tender ready solar systemspecifications/requirements for specific the Offices • Support thetechnical review of tender submissions for the office solar system •Support the Offices in the Supervision and quality assurance of theproject implementation
Solar Power Feasibility Analysis
A feasibility analysis will ascertain your energy consumption profile.An energy consumption profile includes an analysis of existing energyuse and viability of solar for your building and/or site, including arecommendation of the optimal-sized system.
The feasibility analysis will consider: • The current electricity andfuel consumption of the building or site, including identifying monthlypeak and off-peak loads • What portion of electricity is likely to begenerated by solar panels. • The optimal-sized system, orientation,slope and location for the building or site and whether battery storageshould be included. • The suitability of the roof and/or site area forthe installation. Structural engineering advice will be requiredincluding on-site inspection and verification.
• Detailed maintenance requirements for the proposed PV system,including essential items to be included in contract with supplier andany associated costs. It is a good practice for contractors of solar PVsystems to provide an operation & maintenance (“O&M”) manual forthe client. The manual should include basic system data, test andcommissioning data, O&M data, and warranty information. • Ananalysis of the available procurement options and a justification of thepreferred option, one option being the current two LTAs. • Identifyestimated costs, savings and risks associated with the proposal. • Anyplans by the CO on expansion or relocation and any other relevantinformation that will assist in having an accurate feasibility analysis.
3. STANDARD SOLAR POWER SYSTEM, INCLUDING PV DIESEL HYBRID SYSTEMS LTAS
The Standard Photo Voltaic Diesel Hybrid Solar Systems have been sizedx1.5 to get the total Watt-hours per day which must be provided by thepanels and to give the system autonomy from the Generator.
The established solar LTA 42200498 with Peak International Ltd. and LTAs42200500 and 42200503 with Redondo Y Garcia covers the belowrequirements:
S0006912 4KW 50Hz 1P Photo Voltaic Diesel Hybrid Solar Power SystemS0006913 4KW 60Hz 1P Photo Voltaic Diesel Hybrid Solar Power SystemS0006915 6KW 60Hz 3P Photo Voltaic Diesel Hybrid Solar Power SystemS0006916 6KW 60Hz 3P Photo Voltaic Diesel Hybrid Solar Power SystemS0006922 10KW 50Hz 3P Photo Voltaic Diesel Hybrid Solar Power SystemS0006923 10KW 60Hz 3P Photo Voltaic Diesel Hybrid Solar Power SystemS0006919 50KW 50Hz 3P Photo Voltaic Diesel Hybrid Solar Power SystemS0006920 50KW 60Hz 3P Photo Voltaic Diesel Hybrid Solar Power System
Considering the possibility of relocating PV systems among CountryOffice the 60Hz system has been designed based on the same components ofthe 50Hz system. For 60 Hz system, the Country Office needs only to adda transformer making it simple for operation and cost effective.
Refer to Annex 1 for more information on how a PV Diesel Hybrid SolarPower System Works, along with information on the design criteria usedin both LTAs.
Three Basic Steps to Follow When Using the LTAs
Step 1: Start by determining the power load in KW to be supported by thesolar power system.
Step 2: Identify which standard solar power system solution within theLTA will support the determined load power in KW/hr.
For customised solar power systems that cannot be supported by thestandard solutions in the LTAs, the CO will be required to share withthe Supplier/ Supply Division the feasibility study/ analysis performedincluding the proposed solar power system size based on the standardsolar power systems and spare parts in the LTAs.
Step 3: Proposed solutions from the supplier must be approved by the COtechnical focal point or consultant hired by the CO to confirm thesystem is Ok and will meet the CO power requirements.
Material Number U431454 is to be used when raising Preq. for CustomisedSolar Power system based on the LTA. Quotations provided in this regardshould be referenced to the LTA solar power systems and spare partprices. In cases, whereby the system is to be stored in the warehouse COshould change material U number to an SL Material Number.
Solar Power System Warranty
Ideally it is advisable that CO explores local, regional or cross bordermarkets on availability of solar power systems and after sale service.Finding local solution will ensure availability of technical expertise,this will also ensure ease of availing service and parts which fallsunder warranty. CO can also establish SLA contracts with serviceproviders to maintain the system.
Manufacturers’ warranty needs to be provided for each solarsystem/component. Any component which fails due to defective design,materials or workmanship must be covered by a replacement warranty. Theminimum periods for the warranty must be as follows:
• Photovoltaic Modules -twenty (25) years for maintaining power output.• Batteries – five (5) years performance warranty with a fulllike-for-like replacement warranty for the first 12 months and pro-ratedfinancial compensation, based on the purchase cost of the battery set,for the remaining period. • Two (2) years for all other components
Solar power system Installations will require a separate warranty inaddition to the product warranty provided in the LTAs from the entitiesperforming the installations.
1. POST INSTALLATION
Following the installation of a solar power system, it is of utmostimportance to maintain, measure, monitor, and report its performance.
Why monitor energy use?
We cannot manage what we cannot measure. Energy initiatives too oftenare one-time upgrades that are not monitored and measured properly overtime. As a result, the benefits of these improvements are soon lost. Thekey to reducing energy use and sustaining decreases over time isproviding the right information, to enable informed decisions thatbalance energy use with other objectives, such as building comfort andemployee productivity.
How to measure and monitor energy use? To keep it simple, measuring andmonitoring energy use can be done through installing energy meters andsub-meter, ideally internet-connected devices. They main energy meter isinstalled at the main electric supply of the entire facility, while thesub-meters are typically installed on every floor. Sub-meters are alsoideal for UNICEF offices occupying shared premises, as they help withlooking at UNICEF’s individual energy consumption.
2. OTHER RELEVANT RESOURCES
Intranet Pages Eco-efficient and Inclusive UNICEF
Sustainable Procurement Knowledge Portal
Danielle Jenei, email@example.com, Procurement Assistant, WSEC, UNICEFSupply Division
Paul Ongaya, firstname.lastname@example.org, Technical Officer, WSEC, UNICEF SupplyDivision
Anne Cabrera- Clerget, email@example.com, Contracts Manager,WSEC, UNICEF Supply Division
Nicole Merritt, firstname.lastname@example.org, Administrative Assistant, FSU-ISO,UNICEF DFAMAMS
Heidy Martinez, email@example.com, Administrative Officer, FSU-ISO,UNICEF DFAMAMS
William Abi Abdallah, firstname.lastname@example.org, AdministrativeSpecialist, FSU-ISO, UNICEF DFAM-AMS
ANNEX 1 A – HOW DOES A PV DIESEL HYBRID SOLAR POWER SYSTEM WORK? Aphotovoltaic diesel hybrid system ordinarily consists of a PV system,diesel gensets and intelligent management to ensure that the amount ofsolar energy fed into the system exactly matches the demand at thattime.
The PV system can supply additional energy when loads are high orrelieve the genset to minimize its fuel consumption. Excess energy fromthe PV panels is stored in batteries. When solar irradiation isinsufficient or energy is needed after dark, the storage batterysupplies the required energy, ensuring optimal hybrid system operation.
Intelligent management of various system components ensures optimal fueleconomy and minimizes CO2 emissions.
Schematic Diagram a Photo Voltaic Diesel Hybrid Solar Power System
B- DESIGN CRITERIA USED FOR PV DIESEL HYBRID SOLAR POWER SYSTEMS IN BOTHLTAS. The PV Solar system has been designed to provide the load definedin each facility by the PV Modules and Batteries, the excess powerrequirement could be delivered by Diesel Generator (not included).
4.1 In general, the systems in the LTAs were designed according withfollowing criteria: • The PV array is the main source of power, a DieselGenerator would only operate as back-up. • The battery bank will be usedto store energy produced by photovoltaic modules during radiationperiod. • Bi-directional inverter will be regulating the system bycharging or discharging of the battery bank, this inverter will protectthe battery bank from over charge/discharge. • Mono-directional inverterconvert DC from PV modules to AC, to provide AC service to loadsdefined. • When the power from PV system is not available a dieselgenerator could supply power to AC load and charge the batteries throughbi-directional inverter. • The system is designed such a way that adiesel generator automatically would come on during the peak loadsdemands.
• Once the batteries are fully charged, a generator would automaticallyshut down and leave the systems to be operated by the battery bank or PVsystem without interruptions. • A diesel generator could be expected tosupply power or come on during night time. On normal days, the PV systemand the battery bank would supply power during the day time. • If thebattery bank drained beyond the low limit, the bi-directional inverterwould generate a signal to start a diesel generator for supplying powerto AC load and charge the battery bank automatically. 4.2 The PV systemsin this LTAs have been designed in consideration to the followingoperational conditions: • Region. – Tropical and semi tropical •Temperature. – Varying between – 5ºC to plus 50ºC • Altitude. – Up to1200 masl • Humidity. – Up to 85% • Average daily sunshine: 5 PSH (PeakSun Hours) • Wind speed:200 km/h 4.3 General assumption about powerconsumption is as following: • All appliances in a facility/building areexpected to be operational any moment within 24 hours’ day cycle. •Average daily irradiation. – 5,0 kWh/m2/day
Future expansion of the PV system will be possible by the modularconcept to form a minigrid.